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Skamania County Profile



Overview | Geographic facts | Outlook | Labor force and unemployment |
Industry employment | Wages and income | Population

Overview

Regional context

Skamania County is located about 40 miles east of the Portland metro area, in the beautiful Columbia River Gorge. Almost 90 percent of the county is timberland, mostly within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Much of the non-timber land is concentrated in the southern strip along the Columbia River, and falls under the protection of the Columbia Gorge Scenic Area. As a result of these factors, the county has a small population and job base, and projections generally call for modest growth in jobs and population over the next 20 years.

Local economy

Twenty years ago, Skamania County’s economy went through a wrenching transition. Long dependent upon timber for jobs and income, the county lost both when logging was curtailed on national forests and the Stevenson Co-Ply, the county’s largest employer (owned cooperatively by current and former workers), closed. Ten percent of the county’s job base disappeared and unemployment topped 22 percent in February 1992. But a year after the closure, the Skamania Lodge, a new destination resort subsidized by federal funds from the Columbia Gorge Scenic Area Act, opened, with almost the same number of jobs. Almost overnight, Skamania had shifted from a timber economy to a tourist economy.

Employment changed little in the subsequent years, with a brief uptick late in the 1990s and a corresponding loss heading into the 2001 recession. Employment changed little in the subsequent years, with a brief uptick late in the 1990s and a corresponding loss heading into the 2001 recession. Job growth picked up in 2002, but the Great Recession wiped out much of the gains.

The transition from timber to tourism was accompanied by a shift in occupational structure and generally lower wages and income (though official wage data do not include tips). In addition, ex-timber workers who commuted to Clark County for retraining discovered that the commute to the Portland area wasn’t all that onerous. While the number of employed residents grew by about 15 percent during the 1990s, the number of those commuting to jobs outside of the county grew by almost 50 percent. Currently, more than half of the county’s earned income comes from jobs outside of the county. Indeed, almost half of the population growth in the 1990s came in the southwest part of the county closest to Portland.

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Geographic facts

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Skamania County Rank in state
Land area, 2013(square miles) 1,655.68 24
Persons per square mile, 2013 6.82 35

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Outlook

Looking ahead, there is room for some population growth. Also, the site of the old plywood mill, right along the river, has yet to be redeveloped, with housing, commercial and light industrial uses all possible, should the owners decide to make the investment. As this report is being published, a controversial housing development is under consideration at Broughton Landing.

A major threat to the local economy is the potential loss of Federal payments to rural counties affected by the loss of timber revenues. If and when these payments are discontinued, Skamania County would lose a major source of revenue for local government services, including schools.

Labor force and unemployment

(Source: Employment Security Department)

Current labor force and unemployment statistics are available on the Labor area summaries page.

The county labor force was estimated at 5,140 in 2012, with an unemployment rate of 10.7 percent. That was below the peak of 13.2 percent in 2010.

Cross-county commuting

Most employed Skamania residents work outside of the county and many jobs in the county are held by residents of other counties. Estimates for cross-county commuting in the spring of 2011 were as follows. Residents of Skamania County worked in the following counties:

  • Skamania – 22 percent.
  • Clark – 20 percent.
  • Multnomah – 14 percent.
  • Klickitat – 6 percent.
  • Hood River – 5 percent.
  • Other counties – 33 percent.

Workers in Skamania County resided in the following counties:

  • Skamania – 41 percent.
  • Klickitat – 17 percent.
  • Clark – 13 percent.
  • Hood River – 6 percent.
  • Portland Tri-County – 7 percent.
  • Other counties – 16 percent.
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Industry employment

(Source: Employment Security Department)

Current industry employment statistics are available on the Labor area summaries page.

Skamania County nonfarm employment grew steadily from 2002 to 2007, dropped sharply in 2008 and 2009, declined at a slower rate in 2010 and 2011 and started expanding again in 2012. Over the 2002-2012 period, despite the ups and downs, private sector growth was strong, averaging 2.4 percent per year. Job growth was concentrated in manufacturing (+120, hospitality (+100), retail trade (+40) and other services (+60). There were more jobs in construction, logging, manufacturing, local government and non-retail services. It was a different case with the public sector. Both federal employment (-90 jobs) and local non-educational government (-70 jobs) suffered losses.

In 2012, of the 2,150 jobs in the county, almost a third (700) were public sector, much higher than for the state and nation. Leisure & hospitality (550) and manufacturing (320) dominated the private sector .

The major trends and events over the last 15 years include:

  • Logging restrictions on federal lands curbed harvests in the early 1990s, leading to a loss of timber jobs.
  • Stevenson Co-Ply closed in 1992.
  • Skamania Lodge opened in 1993 and expanded in 2003. Tourist related restaurants, retail and services have developed in the Stevenson area.
  • Molded Fiberglass, a trucking industry supplier, opened in 1995, had peak employment in 2000, but then closed after its major customer retrenched during the 2001 recession.
  • The Bonneville Hot Springs resort opened in North Bonneville in 2002.
  • Insitu moved about 100 jobs to Stevenson in August 2009; they are scheduled to be transferred back to Klickitat County in April 2014.

Skamania County’s agricultural production is a fairly small part of the county economy. According to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, there were 123 farms in the county, covering 5,400 acres, fewer acres than any county in the state. The main crop in Skamania is actually trees. In 1982, the timber harvest in Skamania was 410 million board feet, with about 60 percent from federal land and 40 percent from timber industry land. Logging from both sources had all but dried up two decades later. Timber harvest was 58 million board feet in 2010, mostly from large private (non-industry) holdings. Logging employment declined from 90 jobs in 1990 to roughly 10 jobs in 2012.

For historical industry employment data, contact an economist.

Industry employment by age and gender

(Source: The Local Employment Dynamics)

The Local Employment Dynamics (LED) database, a joint project of state employment departments and the U.S. Census Bureau, matches state employment data with federal administrative data. Among the products is industry employment by age and gender. All workers covered by state unemployment insurance data are included; federal workers and non-covered workers, such as the self-employed, are not. Data is presented by place of work, not place of residence. Some highlights:

  • Females held a majority (51.5 percent) of the jobs in Skamania County in 2012.
  • Female-dominated industries included education (77 percent), accommodation & food services (62 percent) and retail trade (62 percent).
  • Male dominated industries include manufacturing (84 percent) and construction (75 percent).

There were slight differences between the percentages of workers in Skamania County and in Washington State by age in 2011.

  • Only 10.6 percent of workers in Skamania County in all industries were under the age of 24 versus 12.6 percent statewide.
  • However, 20.9 percent of workers in Skamania County in all industries were over the age of 55 versus 20.5 percent statewide. In relative terms, the Skamania County labor force is similar to that of the state.
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Wages and income

(Source: Employment Security Department; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Bureau of Economic Analysis; U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey)

The median hourly wage for non-federal jobs in Skamania County was $17.94 in 2012, the highest on record. That was about $1.00 shy of the state average if King County were excluded. Wages have trended upward for more than five years. Similarly, the average annual wage ($32,128 in 2012) has been close to $30,000 a year after adjustment for inflation since the late 1990s. However, the average annual wage was well below the state average. This was due to the greater proportion of very-high-wage jobs in other areas of the state.

Recent measures of household income estimated by the Census Bureau may not be credible. In 1999, the county’s median household income was 6 percent below the national average. The same ratio held for the 2006-2010 five-year period. For the 2007-11 period, estimates show the county matched the U.S median and for 2008-12, the county was 4 percent above the nation. There is no corroborating evidence in terms of job growth, or in-migration to support such a large swing in income.

Personal income

Personal income includes earned income, investment income and government payments such as Social Security and Veterans Benefits. Investment income includes income imputed from pension funds and from owning a home. Per capita personal income equals total personal income divided by the resident population.

In 2012, county per capita income was $37,008. That was 20 percent below the state average and 15 percent below the national average. The gap between the county and the state and nation has closed by about 10 percentage points since the mid-1990s. The main reason for the gap was lower average earnings.

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Population

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

Skamania’s population was estimated at 11,300 in 2013. Over the past decade, population has grown by 1.1 percent per year, slightly above the national rate.

Population facts

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Skamania County Washington state
Population 2012/td> 11,187 6,895,318
Population 2010 11,066 6,724,540
Percent change, 2010 to 2012 1.1% 2.5%

Age, gender and ethnicity

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Skamania’s population is somewhat older than the state and nation. In 2012:

  • 23 percent of the county was below the age of 19, versus 26 percent statewide.
  • 20 percent was aged 20 to 39, versus 27 percent statewide.
  • 33 percent was aged 40 to 59, above the state figure of 28 percent.
  • 24 percent was aged 60 or older, well above the state average of 19 percent.

The county is also less diverse: in 2012, 90 percent of the population was white and non-Hispanic.

Demographics

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Skamania County Washington state
Population by age, 2012
Under 5 years old 4.8% 6.4%
Under 18 years old 21.2% 23.0%
65 years and older 15.9% 13.2%
Females, 2012 49.4% 50.1%
Race/ethnicity, 2012
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino 88.8% 71.6%
Black 0.5% 3.9%
American Indian, Alaskan Native 1.8% 1.8%
Asian, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander 1.1% 8.4%
Hispanic or Latino, any race 5.5% 11.7%

Educational attainment

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Skamania residents are less likely to have a college degree than in the state or nation as a whole. In 2008-12, 22.5 percent of the population aged 25 and older had a bachelor’s degree or higher education, vs. 31.6 percent statewide. Their high school graduation rate slightly exceeded that of the state at 90.5 percent vs. 90.0 percent.

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