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Franklin County Profile

Overview | Geographic facts | Outlook | Labor force and unemployment |
Industry employment | Wages and Income | Population


Regional context

Franklin County, named for Benjamin Franklin, was created from Whitman County in 1883. The county is located in southeastern Washington at the convergence of the Snake and Columbia rivers. The Columbia River forms its western border and the Snake River forms its southern and eastern borders. Adams County is to its north. The railroads secured the county’s future as towns grew up around its railroad stations. Ranching and farming have continued to be the economic mainstay of Franklin County. It ranked 27th in the state in terms of land area and 15th in the state in persons per square mile (62.9) in 2010.

Local economy

Native Americans were the first people who inhabited this area, hunting game and fishing salmon. In the 1850s, white prospectors traveled through the area to the gold rush in British Columbia. Some stayed to raise sheep and plant orchards. The 1855 treaty agreements resulted in the native people ceding their lands to the United States and moving onto reservations.

In the 1800s, cattle and horse ranches dominated much of the northern county while orchards flourished elsewhere. With the coming of the railroad, settlements started at the mouth of the Snake River. Pasco was connected to Kennewick through ferry-operated services and steamboats, which ended in 1887 when the first railroad bridge connected Pasco to Kennewick. The railroad furthered development throughout the 1900s. There were settlements of Chinese who worked for the railroad. Some of the Chinese panned gold and operated businesses in the rail towns.

There was unremarkable growth until World War II when the U.S. Army-Air Force base moved to Pasco and the Hanford project moved to Richland. In 1948, the first farm received water from the Grand Coulee Dam irrigation system. Manufacturing and storage facilities, including ice houses and fruit-packing facilities, followed.

The 1990s and 2000s brought increasing industrial diversity with continued agriculture and food manufacturing as its economic base. The economic downturn, however, did not spare Franklin County. The county’s rate of unemployment has risen and the length of joblessness has increased. Construction, real estate and rental and leasing were the industries that lost the most employment during the recession. Industries that are creating stability in the area include food manufacturing, agriculture and private and public educational and healthcare services.

Franklin County became the first Hispanic-majority county in the Pacific Northwest. It is also one of the region’s fastest growing counties.


Geographic facts

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Franklin County Rank in state
Land area, 2010 (square miles) 1,242.17 27
Persons per square mile, 2010 62.9 15



Local population growth continues to drive demand for more educational services as well as healthcare. The good news is that the housing market in the county is stable with growing housing inventories and affordable prices. Over the past year there have been many industries that have contributed to the job growth in Franklin County including manufacturing with 6.6 percent growth or 212 jobs, wholesale trade with 147 growth or 7.8 percent and construction with a 116 job gain or 7.2 percent.

In the short run, education and health services are expected to lead the way in annual growth. In response to increasing manufacturing in the area, agriculture, wholesale trade, along with transportation and warehousing industries will be expanding as well. The leisure and hospitality industry in the county is expecting to add jobs as well.


Labor force and unemployment

(Source: Employment Security Department)

Current labor force and unemployment statistics are available on the Labor area summaries page.

In 2014, the total county labor force was estimated at 38,240, which was marginally higher than in 2013. The Franklin County unemployment rate was 8.5 percent in 2014, which was 0.9 percent lower than in 2013. The resident labor force employment increased by 370 jobs over the year to 35,000, while number of unemployed residents decreased by 330 to 3,240 in 2014. The labor force picture is starting to improve after a slight decline in 2013. The labor force participation rate in Franklin County was around 64.5 percent as of 2014, marking a one percent decrease from 2013. The labor force participation rate is little bit more volatile year to year in Franklin County than that in the state (64.1 percent) because of its core agricultural industries.

The most current data show that the Franklin County August 2015 preliminary unemployment rate was 6.0 percent, down by 1.1 percent from the 7.1 percent reading in August 2014.

Preliminary August 2015 estimates for the county show that the total civilian labor force was up by 1.0 percent, from 39,810 in August 2015 to 39,423 in July 2015. The number of employed residents was 37,429 in August 2015, up by 1.5 percent from 36,864 in July 2015. At the same time the number of unemployed workers decreased by 7.0 percent from 2,380 in August 2015 to 2,559 in July 2015.


Industry employment

(Source: Employment Security Department)

Current industry employment statistics are available on the Labor area summaries page.

Total covered employment in Franklin County was 31,842 in 2014, which has grown by 2.3 percent or 702 jobs since 2013. The five-year average annual growth rate of Franklin County covered employment was 2.8 percent. The average annual wage for covered employment in Franklin County was $35,851 in 2014, an increase of 1.5 percent over the year.

In 2014, according to the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, there were 2,744 total establishments in Franklin County. Private establishments provided about 26,019 jobs or 81.7 percent of the total in 2014 and public administration provided 5,823 jobs or 18.3 percent of the total employment in 2014.

Goods-producing industries, which include natural resources, mining, construction and manufacturing, increased in employment from 2013 to 2014 by 1.1 percent, or 128 jobs. Average monthly employment in 2014 was 11,329 workers and annual wages totaled $371.4 million, which translates to a $32,783 average annual wage for goods-producing workers.

  • Manufacturing increased employment over the year by 6.6 percent or by 212 jobs to 3,436 in 2014, with average annual pay of $35,641. Manufacturing represented about 10.8 percent of total covered employment.
    • Nondurable goods, which include food, beverage and chemical manufacturing, were 82.6 percent of manufacturing.
    • Durable goods, which include miscellaneous fabricated metal and transportation equipment manufacturing, were 17.4 percent of manufacturing.
  • Construction accounted for 5.4 percent of the total average annual employment in the county with 1,734 jobs.
    • The average annual wage in construction was $46,920 in 2014.
    • Over the year the construction sector increased by 7.2 percent or by 116 jobs. Construction activities are moving forward with new housing developments to accommodate the current demand.
  • Agriculture is one of the base industries in the area, representing 19.3 percent of total employment. It is, however, highly seasonal and volatile from year to year.
    • Average annual employment in agriculture in 2014 was 6,159, down by 3.1 percent from 2013.
    • The average annual wage in agriculture was at $27,209, mainly due to the seasonality of agricultural activities.
    • Crop production represents 63.5 percent of total agriculture, which is largely in non-citrus fruit farming, including apple orchards, grape vineyards and other produce.
    • Support activities shared 26.8 percent of employment, which includes post-harvest crop activity.

Service-providing industries have a 64.4 percent share of Franklin County’s total employment. There was an average of 20,513 jobs in this industry, which paid an average annual wage of $37,544 in 2014. Over the year, service-providing industries increased by 2.9 percent, or by 574 jobs.

  • Retail trade is the largest employing private service industry in Franklin County, representing 9.5 percent of total employment and the third largest of all industries after agriculture and manufacturing. Retail trade is a very stable industry and in 2014 this industry had an average of 2,989 jobs, which paid an average annual wage of $31,059.
  • Healthcare and social assistance employment in the private sector was 2,709 jobs, which represented about 8.5 percent of total employment in 2014. The average annual wage in this industry was $32,124.
  • Public administration is the largest service-providing industry in Franklin County with an 18.3 percent share of total employment. This industry had an average annual employment of 5,823 in 2014. It paid an average annual wage of $45,806. The largest share of employment in this industry is in local school administration, providing services to youth.

For historical industry employment data, contact an economist.

Industry employment by age and gender

(Source: The Local Employment Dynamics)

The Local Employment Dynamics (LED) database, a joint project of state employment departments and the U.S. Census Bureau, matches state employment data with federal administrative data. Among the products is industry employment by age and gender. All workers covered by state unemployment insurance data are included; federal workers and non-covered workers, such as the self-employed, are not. Data are presented by place of work, not place of residence. Some highlights:

  • In 2013, the largest share of employment was held by 25 to 34 year-olds at 23.2 percent, which is close to the state’s figure of 22.6 percent. The age group 55 years old and older had 21.2 percent share of employment, which is followed by 35 to 44 with 20.5 percent. Also, 45 to 54 years olds had a 19.8 percent share of employment in the Franklin County.
  • The county’s demographics showed male workers held 55.5 percent and females held 44.5 percent of all jobs.
    • Male-dominated industries included construction (79.9 percent), transportation and warehousing (79.9 percent), wholesale trade (79.1 percent), utilities (72.2 percent) and real estate and rental and leasing (72.9 percent).
    • Female-dominated industries included healthcare and social assistance (79.4 percent), finance and insurance (70.7 percent) and educational services (69.5 percent).

Wages and income

(Source: Employment Security Department; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Bureau of Economic Analysis; U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey)

In 2014, there were 31,842 jobs in Franklin County covered by unemployment insurance, with a total payroll of over $1.10 billion.

The average annual wage was $35,851, well below the state’s average annual wage of $55,003. The median hourly wage in 2013 was $15.61, below the state’s median hourly wage of $22.09.

Personal income

Personal income includes earned income, investment income, and government payments such as Social Security and Veterans Benefits. Investment income includes income imputed from pension funds and from owning a home. Per capita personal income equals total personal income divided by the resident population.

In 2013, Franklin County’s personal income totaled $2.6 million, which translates into a $30,534 per capita personal income. Franklin County’s per capita personal income was 36.0 percent less than the state ($47,717) and 31.8 percent less than the nation ($44,765).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts, the median household income was $57,890 in 2014. The county’s median was less than that of the state ($61,366) during the same period.

Franklin County’s poverty rate of 17.8 percent was higher than Washington state’s rate of 13.2 percent and the nation’s rate of 15.5 percent in 2014, according to U.S Census Bureau QuickFacts.



(Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

In 2014, Franklin County’s population was 87,809. Since 2000, Franklin County has had a 77.9 percent growth rate. In comparison, the state grew by 19.8 percent from 2000 to 2014.

The largest city in Franklin County is Pasco, the county seat, with a population of 68,648 in 2014.

Population facts

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Franklin County Washington state
Population 2014 87,809 7,061,530
Population 2000 49,347 5,894,121
Percent change, 2000 to 2014 77.9% 19.8%

Age, gender and ethnicity

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Franklin County has a much younger population than does the state.

  • Over one-third of Franklin County’s population (33.5 percent) was under 18 years of age compared to the state (22.7 percent) in 2014.
  • Residents under the age of 5 years old made up 10.0 percent of the county’s total population compared to 6.3 percent in the state in 2014.
  • In 2014, Franklin County’s population 65 years and older made up 7.9 percent of the total compared to 14.1 percent of the state’s population.

The county was 48.1 percent female compared to 50.0 percent for the state in 2014.

Franklin County was the first county in the region to have a majority of Hispanics in its population. In 2014, Franklin County was 42.0 percent white alone and not Hispanic compared to 70.3 percent in the state. Hispanics or Latinos were 51.9 percent of the population compared with 12.2 percent in the state.


(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

Franklin County Washington state
Population by age, 2014
Under 5 years old 10.0% 6.3%
Under 18 years old 33.5% 22.7%
65 years and older 7.9% 14.1%
Females, 2014 47.3% 50.0%
Race/ethnicity, 2014
White, not Hispanic 42.0% 70.3%
Black 2.6% 3.6%
American Indian, Alaskan Native 1.4% 1.9%
Asian, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander 2.6% 7.8%
Hispanic or Latino, any race 51.9% 12.2%

Educational attainment

(Source: U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts)

High school graduates among Franklin County’s population 25 years and older totaled 71.9 percent, lower than the state (90.2 percent) in 2010-2014.

Those holding a bachelor’s degree or higher made up 15.4 percent of Franklin County residents age 25 and older compared to 32.3 percent of state residents over the same period.