BMP T7.30: Bioretention Cells, Swales, and Planter Boxes

Purpose

To provide effective removal of many stormwater pollutants, and provide reductions in stormwater runoff quantity and surface runoff flow rates. Where the surrounding native soils have adequate infiltration rates, bioretention can help comply with flow control and treatment requirements. Where the native soils have low infiltration rates, underdrain systems can be installed and the facility used to filter pollutants and detain flows that exceed infiltration capacity of the surrounding soil. However, designs utilizing underdrains provide less flow control benefits.

Description

Bioretention areas are shallow landscaped depressions, with a designed soil mix and plants adapted to the local climate and soil moisture conditions, that receive stormwater from a contributing area.

The term, bioretention, is used to describe various designs using soil and plant complexes to manage stormwater. The following terminology is used in this manual:

Note: Ecology has approved use of certain patented treatment systems that use specific, high rate media for treatment. Such systems are not considered LID BMPs and are not options for meeting the requirements of I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management. The Ecology approval is meant to be used for I-2.5.6 Minimum Requirement #6: Runoff Treatment, where appropriate.

Figure V-7.4.1a Typical Bioretention

2014 Figure V-7.4.1a pdf download

Figure V-7.4.1b Typical Bioretention w/Underdrain

2014 Figure V-7.4.1b pdf download

Figure V-7.4.1c Typical Bioretention w/Liner (Not LID)

2014 Figure V-7.4.1c pdf download

Figure V-7.4.2 Example of a Bioretention Planter

2014 Figure V-7.4.2 pdf download

Applications and Limitations

Because bioretention facilities use an imported soil mix that has a moderate design infiltration rate, they are best applied for small drainages, and near the source of the stormwater. Cells may be scattered throughout a subdivision; a swale may run alongside the access road; or a series of planter boxes may serve the road. In these situations, they can but are not required to fully meet the requirement to treat 91% of the stormwater runoff file from pollution-generating surfaces. But the amount of stormwater that is predicted to pass through the soil profile may be estimated and subtracted from the 91% volume that must be treated. Downstream treatment facilities may be significantly smaller as a result.

Bioretention facilities that infiltrate into the ground can also serve a significant flow reduction function. They can, but are not required to fully meet the flow control duration standard of I-2.5.7 Minimum Requirement #7: Flow Control. Because they typically do not have an orifice restricting overflow or underflow discharge rates, they typically don’t fully meet I-2.5.7 Minimum Requirement #7: Flow Control. However, their performance contributes to meeting the standard, and that can result in much smaller flow control facilities at the bottom of the project site. When used in combination with other low impact development techniques, they can also help achieve compliance with the Performance Standard option of I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management.

Bioretention constructed with imported composted material should not be used within one-quarter mile of phosphorus-sensitive waterbodies if the underlying native soil does not meet the soil suitability criteria for treatment in Chapter III-3 - Flow Control Design. Preliminary monitoring indicates that new bioretention facilities can add phosphorus to stormwater. Therefore, they should also not be used with an underdrain when the underdrain water would be routed to a phosphorus-sensitive receiving water.

Applications with or without underdrains vary extensively and can be applied in new development, redevelopment and retrofits. Typical applications include:

Infeasibility Criteria:

The following criteria describe conditions that make bioretention or rain gardens not required. If a project proponent wishes to use a bioretention or rain garden BMP though not required to because of these feasibility criteria, they may propose a functional design to the local government.

Note: Criteria with setback distances are as measured from the bottom edge of the bioretention soil mix.

Citation of any of the following infeasibility criteria must be based on an evaluation of site-specific conditions and a written recommendation from an appropriate licensed professional (e.g., engineer, geologist, hydrogeologist):

The following criteria can be cited as reasons for a finding of infeasibility without further justification (though some require professional services):

A local government may designate geographic boundaries within which bioretention cells, swales, or planters may be designated as infeasible due to year-round, seasonal or periodic high groundwater conditions, or due to inadequate infiltration rates. Designations must be based upon a pre-ponderance of field data, collected within the area of concern, that indicate a high likelihood of failure to achieve the minimum groundwater clearance or infiltration rates identified in the above infeasibility criteria. The local government must develop a technical report and make it available upon request to the Dept. of Ecology. The report must be authored by (a) professional(s) with appropriate expertise (e.g., registered engineer, geologist, hydrogeologist, or certified soil scientist), and document the location and the pertinent values/observations of data that were used to recommend the designation and boundaries for the geographic area. The types of pertinent data include, but are not limited to:

In addition, a local government can map areas that meet a specific infeasibility criterion listed above provided they have an adequate data basis. Criteria that are most amenable to mapping are:

Other Site Suitability Factors:

Field and Design Procedures

Geotechnical analysis is an important first step to develop an initial assessment of the variability of site soils, infiltration characteristics and the necessary frequency and depth of infiltration tests. See the Site Planning guidance in Chapter I-3 - Preparation of Stormwater Site Plans.

See III-3.4 Stormwater-related Site Procedures and Design Guidance for Bioretention and Permeable Pavement for more specific guidance regarding required field testing, assignment of infiltration rate correction factors, project submission requirements, and modeling.

Determining subgrade infiltration rates

Determining infiltration rates of the site soils is necessary to determine feasibility of designs that intend to infiltrate stormwater on-site. It is also necessary to estimate flow reduction benefits of such designs when using the Western Washington Hydrologic Model (WWHM) or MGS Flood.

The following provides recommended tests for the soils underlying bioretention areas. The test should be run at the anticipated elevation of the top of the native soil beneath the bioretention facility.

Method 1:

Method 2: Soil Grain Size Analysis Method:

This method is restricted to sites underlain with soils not consolidated by glacial advance (e.g., recessional outwash soils).

Determining Bioretention soil mix infiltration rate:

Option 1: If using the Bioretention Soil Mix recommended herein, the WWHM assumes a default infiltration rate of 12 inches per hour (30.48 cm/hr)

Option 2: If creating a custom bioretention soil mix, Use ASTM D 2434 Standard Test Method for Permeability of granular Soils (Constant Head) with a compaction rate of 85 percent using ASTM D1557 Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort. See Appendix V-B for specific procedures for conducting ASTM D 2434. The WWHM user must enter the derived value into WWHM using “View/Edit Soil Types” pull down menu and adjusting the Ksat value.

After selecting option 1 or 2 above, determine the appropriate safety factor for the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). If the contributing area of the bioretention cell or swale is equal to or exceeds any of the following limitations:

5,000 square feet of pollution-generating impervious surface;

10,000 square feet of impervious surface;

¾ acre of lawn and landscape,

use 4 as the infiltration rate (Ksat) safety factor. If the contributing area is less than all of the above areas, or if the design includes a pretreatment device for solids removal, use 2 as the Ksat safety factor.

The WWHM has a field for entering the appropriate safety factor.

Design Criteria for Bioretention

These design criteria are from the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012). Refer to that document for additional explanations and background.

Note that the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) is for additional information purposes only. You must follow the guidance within this manual if there are any discrepancies between this manual and the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012).

Flow entrance and presettling

Flow entrance design will depend on topography, flow velocities and volume entering the pretreatment and bioretention area, adjacent land use and site constraints. Flow velocities entering bioretention should be less than 1.0 ft/second to minimize erosion potential. Five primary types of flow entrances can be used for bioretention:

Woody plants can restrict or concentrate flows and can be damaged by erosion around the root ball and should not be placed directly in the entrance flow path.

Bottom area and side slopes

Bioretention areas are highly adaptable and can fit various settings such as rural and urban roadsides, ultra urban streetscapes and parking lots by adjusting bottom area and side slope configuration. Recommended maximum and minimum dimensions include:

Bioretention areas should have a minimum shoulder of 12 inches (30.5 cm) between the road edge and beginning of the bioretention side slope where flush curbs are used. Compaction effort for the shoulder should 90 percent proctor.

Ponding area

Ponding depth recommendations:

For design on projects subject to I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management, and choosing to use List #1 or List #2 of that requirement, a bioretention facility shall have a horizontally projected surface area below the overflow which is at least 5% of the total impervious surface area draining to it. If lawn/landscape area will also be draining to the bioretention facility, Ecology recommends that the bioretention facility’s horizontally projected surface area below the overflow be increased by 2% of the lawn/landscape area.

The ponding area provides surface storage for storm flows, particulate settling, and the first stages of pollutant treatment within the cell. Pool depth and draw-down rate are recommended to provide surface storage, adequate infiltration capability, and soil moisture conditions that allow for a range of appropriate plant species. Soils must be allowed to dry out periodically in order to: restore hydraulic capacity to receive flows from subsequent storms; maintain infiltration rates; maintain adequate soil oxygen levels for healthy soil biota and vegetation; provide proper soil conditions for biodegradation and retention of pollutants. Maximum designed depth of ponding (before surface overflow to a pipe or ditch) must be considered in light of drawdown time.

For bioretention areas with underdrains, elevating the drain to create a temporary saturated zone beneath the drain is advised to promote denitrification (conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas) and prolong moist soil conditions for plant survival during dry periods (see Underdrain section below for details).

Surface overflow

Surface overflow can be provided by vertical stand pipes that are connected to underdrain systems, by horizontal drainage pipes or armored overflow channels installed at the designed maximum ponding elevations. Overflow can also be provided by a curb cut at the down-gradient end of the bioretention area to direct overflows back to the street. Overflow conveyance structures are necessary for all bioretention facilities to safely convey flows that exceed the capacity of the facility and to protect downstream natural resources and property.

The minimum freeboard from the invert of the overflow stand pipe, horizontal drainage pipe or earthen channel should be 6 inches unless otherwise specified by the local jurisdiction’s design standards.

Default Bioretention Soil Media (BSM)

Projects which use the following requirements for the bioretention soil media do not have to test the media for it saturated hydraulic conductivity (aka. Infiltration rate). They may assume the rates specified in the subsection titled “Determining Bioretention Soil Mix Infiltration Rate.”

Mineral Aggregate

Percent Fines: A range of 2 to 4 percent passing the #200 sieve is ideal and fines should not be above 5 percent for a proper functioning specification according to ASTM D422.

Aggregate Gradation

The aggregate portion of the BSM should be well-graded. According to ASTM D 2487-98 (Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)), well-graded sand should have the following gradation coefficients:

Table V-7.4.1 General Guideline for Mineral Aggregate Gradation provides a gradation guideline for the aggregate component of a Bioretention Soil Mix specification in western Washington (Hinman, Robertson, 2007). The sand gradation below is often supplied as a well-graded utility or screened. With compost this blend provides enough fines for adequate water retention, hydraulic conductivity within recommended range (see below), pollutant removal capability, and plant growth characteristics for meeting design guidelines and objectives.

Table V-7.4.1 General Guideline for Mineral Aggregate Gradation
Sieve Size Percent Passing
3/8" 100
#4 95-100
#10 75-90
#40 25-40
#100 4-10
#200 2-5

Where existing soils meet the above aggregate gradation, those soils may be amended rather than importing mineral aggregate.

Compost to Aggregate Ratio, Organic Matter Content, Cation Exchange Capacity

Compost

To ensure that the BSM will support healthy plant growth and root development, contribute to biofiltration of pollutants, and not restrict infiltration when used in the proportions cited herein, the following compost standards are required.

Design Criteria for Custom Bioretention Soil Mixes

Projects which prefer to create a custom Bioretention Soil Mix rather than using the default requirements above must demonstrate compliance with the following criteria using the specified test method:

Soil Depth:

Soil depth must be a minimum of 18 inches to provide water quality treatment and good growing conditions for selected plants

Filter Fabrics:

Do not use filter fabrics between the subgrade and the Bioretention Soil Mix. The gradation between existing soils and Bioretention Soil Mix is not great enough to allow significant migration of fines into the Bioretention Soil Mix. Additionally, filter fabrics may clog with downward migration of fines from the Bioretention Soil Mix.

Underdrain (optional):

Where the underlying native soils have an estimated initial infiltration rate between 0.3 and 0.6 inches per hour, bioretention facilities without an underdrain, or with an elevated underdrain directed to a surface outlet, may be used to satisfy List #2 of I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management. Underdrained bioretention facilities that drain to a retention/detention facility must meet the following criteria if they are used to satisfy list #2 of I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management.

Figure V-7.4.1b Typical Bioretention w/Underdrain depicts a bioretention facility with an elevated underdrain. Figure V-7.4.1c Typical Bioretention w/Liner (Not LID) depicts a bioretention facility with an underdrain and a low permeability liner. The latter is not considered a low impact development BMP. It cannot be used to implement List #2 of I-2.5.5 Minimum Requirement #5: On-site Stormwater Management.

The volume above an underdrain pipe in a bioretention facility provides pollutant filtering and minor detention. However, only the void volume of the aggregate below the underdrain invert and above the bottom of the bioretention facility (subgrade) can be used in the WWHM or MGSFlood for dead storage volume that provides flow control benefit. Assume a 40% void volume for the Type 26 mineral aggregate specified below.

Underdrain systems should only be installed when the bioretention facility is:

The underdrain can be connected to a downstream open conveyance (bioretention swale), to another bioretention cell as part of a connected treatment system, daylight to a dispersion area using an effective flow dispersion practice, or to a storm drain.

Underdrain pipe:

Underdrains shall be slotted, thick-walled plastic pipe. The slot opening should be smaller than the smallest aggregate gradation for the gravel filter bed (see underdrain filter bed below) to prevent migration of material into the drain. This configuration allows for pressurized water cleaning and root cutting if necessary.

Underdrain pipe recommendations:

Perforated PVC or flexible slotted HDPE pipe cannot be cleaned with pressurized water or root cutting equipment, are less durable and are not recommended. Wrapping the underdrain pipe in filter fabric increases chances of clogging and is not recommended. A 6-inch rigid non-perforated observation pipe or other maintenance access should be connected to the underdrain every 250 to 300 feet to provide a clean-out port, as well as an observation well to monitor dewatering rates.

Underdrain aggregate filter and bedding layer.

Aggregate filter and bedding layers buffer the underdrain system from sediment input and clogging. When properly selected for the soil gradation, geosynthetic filter fabrics can provide adequate protection from the migration of fines. However, aggregate filter and bedding layers, with proper gradations, provide a larger surface area for protecting underdrains and are preferred.

Orifice and other flow control structures:

Check dams and weirs

Check dams are necessary for reducing flow velocity and potential erosion, as well as increasing detention time and infiltration capability on sloped sites. Typical materials include concrete, wood, rock, compacted dense soil covered with vegetation, and vegetated hedge rows. Design depends on flow control goals, local regulations for structures within road right-of-ways and aesthetics. Optimum spacing is determined by flow control benefit (modeling) in relation to cost consideration. See the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) for displays of typical designs.

Note that the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) is for additional informational purposes only. You must follow the guidance within this manual if there are any discrepancies between this manual and the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012).

UIC discharge

Stormwater that has passed through the bioretention soil mix may also discharge to a gravel-filled dug or drilled drain. Underground Injection Control (UIC) regulations are applicable and must be followed (Chapter 173-218 WAC).

Hydraulic restriction layers:

Adjacent roads, foundations or other infrastructure may require that infiltration pathways are restricted to prevent excessive hydrologic loading. Two types of restricting layers can be incorporated into bioretention designs:

Plant materials

In general, the predominant plant material utilized in bioretention areas are facultative species adapted to stresses associated with wet and dry conditions. Soil moisture conditions will vary within the facility from saturated (bottom of cell) to relatively dry (rim of cell). Accordingly, wetland plants may be used in the lower areas, if saturated soil conditions exist for appropriate periods, and drought-tolerant species planted on the perimeter of the facility or on mounded areas. See the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) for additional guidance and recommended plant species.

Note that the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) is for additional informational purposes only. You must follow the guidance within this manual if there are any discrepancies between this manual and the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012).

Mulch layer

You can design Bioretention areas with or without a mulch layer. When used, mulch shall be:

Mulch shall not be:

In bioretention areas where higher flow velocities are anticipated an aggregate mulch may be used to dissipate flow energy and protect underlying Bioretention Soil Mix. Aggregate mulch varies in size and type, but 1 to 1 1/2 inch gravel (rounded) decorative rock is typical.

Installation

Excavation

Soil compaction can lead to facility failure; accordingly, minimizing compaction of the base and sidewalls of the bioretention area is critical. Excavation should never be allowed during wet or saturated conditions (compaction can reach depths of 2-3 feet during wet conditions and mitigation is likely not be possible). Excavation should be performed by machinery operating adjacent to the bioretention facility and no heavy equipment with narrow tracks, narrow tires, or large lugged, high pressure tires should be allowed on the bottom of the bioretention facility. If machinery must operate in the bioretention cell for excavation, use light weight, low ground-contact pressure equipment and rip the base at completion to refracture soil to a minimum of 12 inches. If machinery operates in the facility, subgrade infiltration rates must be field tested and compared to design rates. Failure to meet or exceed the design infiltration rate will require revised engineering designs to verify achievement of treatment and flow control benefits that were estimated in the Stormwater Site Plan.

Prior to placement of the BSM, the finished subgrade shall:

Sidewalls of the facility, beneath the surface of the BSM, can be vertical if soil stability is adequate. Exposed sidewalls of the completed bioretention area with BSM in place should be no steeper than 3H:1V. The bottom of the facility should be flat.

Soil Placement

On-site soil mixing or placement shall not be performed if Bioretention Soil Mix or subgrade soil is saturated. The bioretention soil mixture should be placed and graded by machinery operating adjacent to the bioretention facility. If machinery must operate in the bioretention cell for soil placement, use light weight equipment with low ground-contact pressure. If machinery operates in the facility, subgrade infiltration rates must be field tested and compared to design rates. Failure to meet or exceed the design infiltration rate will require revised engineering designs to verify achievement of treatment and flow control benefits that were estimated in the Stormwater Site Plan.

The soil mixture shall be placed in horizontal layers not to exceed 6 inches per lift for the entire area of the bioretention facility.

Compact the Bioretention Soil Mix to a relative compaction of 85 percent of modified maximum dry density (ASTM D 1557). Compaction can be achieved by boot packing (simply walking over all areas of each lift), and then apply 0.2 inches (0.5 cm) of water per 1 inch (2.5 cm) of Bioretention Soil Mix depth. Water for settling should be applied by spraying or sprinkling.

Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control (TESC)

Controlling erosion and sediment are most difficult during clearing, grading, and construction; accordingly, minimizing site disturbance to the greatest extent practicable is the most effective sediment management. During construction:

Every effort during design, construction sequencing and construction should be made to prevent sediment from entering bioretention facilities. However, bioretention areas are often distributed throughout the project area and can present unique challenges during construction. See the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) for guidelines if no other options exist and runoff during construction must be directed through the bioretention facilities.

Note that the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012) is for additional informational purposes only. You must follow the guidance within this manual if there are any discrepancies between this manual and the LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound (2012).

Erosion and sediment control practices must be inspected and maintained on a regular basis.

Verification

If using the default bioretention soil media, pre-placement laboratory analysis for saturated hydraulic conductivity of the bioretention soil media is not required. Verification of the mineral aggregate gradation, compliance with the compost specifications, and the mix ratio must be provided.

If using a custom bioretention soil media, verification of compliance with the minimum design criteria cited above for such custom mixes must be provided. This will require laboratory testing of the material that will be used in the installation. Testing shall be performed by a Seal of Testing Assurance, AASHTO, ASTM or other standards organization accredited laboratory with current and maintained certification. Samples for testing must be supplied from the BSM that will be placed in the bioretention areas.

If testing infiltration rates is necessary for post-construction verification use the Pilot Infiltration Test (PIT) method or a double ring infiltrometer test (or other small-scale testing allowed by the local government with jurisdiction). If using the PIT method, do not excavate Bioretention Soil Mix (conduct test at level of finished Bioretention Soil Mix elevation), use a maximum of 6 inch ponding depth and conduct test before plants are installed.

Maintenance

Bioretention areas require annual plant, soil, and mulch layer maintenance to ensure optimum infiltration, storage, and pollutant removal capabilities. In general, bioretention maintenance requirements are typical landscape care procedures and include: